### Calculations

View additional mathematics for Local Moran's I. The p-values are numerical approximations of the area under the curve for a known distribution, limited by the test statistic. See What is a Z score? What is a p-value?.

### Interpretation

A positive value for I indicates that the feature is surrounded by features with similar values. Such a feature is part of a cluster. A negative value for I indicates that the feature is surrounded by features with dissimilar values. Such a feature is an outlier. The Local Moran's index can only be interpreted within the context of the computed Z score or p-value (see What is a Z score? What is a p-value?). The COType field distinguishes between a statistically significant (0.05 level) cluster of high values (HH), cluster of low values (LL), outlier in which a high value is surround primarily by low values (HL), and outlier in which a low value is surrounded primarily by high values (LH).### Potential applications

Applications can be found in economics, resource management, biogeography, political geography, and demographics.### Additional Resources:

Mitchell, Andy.*The ESRI Guide to GIS Analysis, Volume 2.*ESRI Press, 2005

*.*Anselin, Luc. "Local Indicators of Spatial Association – LISA," GeographicalAnalysis, 27(2): 93–115, 1995.