Euclidean Distance

Calculates, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source.

Learn more about how Euclidean functions work


Euclidean Distance illustration

Usage tips

Command line and Scripting


EucDistance_sa (in_source_data, out_distance_raster, maximum_distance, cell_size, out_direction_raster)
Parameter Explanation Datatype
Input raster or feature source data (Required)

The input source locations.

A raster or feature dataset that identifies the cells or locations to which the Euclidean distance for every cell location is calculated. If raster, it must be integer type.

Distance is calculated only to the single closest source cell or location.

Composite Geodataset
Output distance raster (Required)

The name of the output Euclidean distance raster.

The distance raster identifies, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source cell, set of source cells, or source location.

Raster Dataset
Maximum distance (Optional)

Defines the threshold that the accumulative distance values cannot exceed.

If an accumulative Euclidean distance value exceeds the {maximum_distance}, the output value for the cell location will be NoData. The {maximum_distance} defines the extent for which the accumulative Euclidean distances are calculated. The default distance is to the edge of the output raster.

Output cell size (Optional)

The cell size at which the output raster will be created.

This will be the value in the environment if it is explicitly set. If it's not set in the environment, and if the in_source_data is a raster, the cell size will default to that of the in_source_data. If the in_source_data is a feature dataset, the cell size will default to the shorter of the width or height of the extent of input features in the input spatial reference, divided by 250.

Analysis cell size
Output direction raster (Optional)

The name of the output Euclidean direction raster.

The direction raster contains the calculated direction, in degrees, each cell center is from the closest source cell center. The range of values is 0 to 360 degrees, with 0 reserved for the source cells. Due east (right) is 90, and the values increase clockwise (180 is south, 270 is west, and 360 is north).

Raster Dataset
Data types for geoprocessing tool parameters

Script Example

# Description: 
#   Calculates for each cell the Euclidean distance to the nearest source.
# Requirements: None
# Author: ESRI
# Date: Sept 6, 2005

# Import system modules
import arcgisscripting

# Create the Geoprocessor object
gp = arcgisscripting.create()

    # Set local variables
    InSourceData = "C:/data/source.shp"
    OutDistanceRaster = "C:/data/dist_ras"
    InMaxDistance = "2"
    InCellSize = "30"
    OutDirectionRaster = "C:/data/dir_ras"

    # Check out ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension license

    # Process: EucDistance
    gp.EucDistance_sa(InSourceData, OutDistanceRaster, InMaxDistance, InCellSize, OutDirectionRaster)

    # If an error occurred while running a tool, then print the messages.
    print gp.GetMessages()

Map Algebra syntax

See EucDistance

ArcObjects syntax

See EucDistance or EucDistanceFull

See Also

  • EucDistance
  • EucDistanceFull
  • Euclidean Allocation
  • Euclidean Direction
  • An overview of the Distance tools