Package com.esri.arcgis.geoprocessing.tools.spatialanalysttools

ArcGIS Spatial Analyst provides a rich set of tools to perform cell-based (raster) analysis.

See:
          Description

Class Summary
Abs Calculates the absolute value of cells in a raster.
ACos Calculates the inverse cosine of cells in a raster.
ACosH Calculates the inverse hyperbolic cosine of cells in a raster.
Aggregate Generates a reduced resolution version of a raster.
AreaSolarRadiation Derives incoming solar radiation from a raster surface.
ASin Calculates the inverse sine of cells in a raster.
ASinH Calculates the inverse hyperbolic sine of cells in a raster.
Aspect Derives aspect from a raster surface.
ATan Calculates the inverse tangent of cells in a raster.
ATan2 Calculates the inverse tangent (based on x,y) of cells in a raster.
ATanH Calculates the inverse hyperbolic tangent of cells in a raster.
BandCollectionStats Calculates the statistics for a set of raster bands.
Basin Creates a raster delineating all drainage basins.
BitwiseAnd Performs a Bitwise And operation on the binary values of two input rasters.
BitwiseLeftShift Performs a Bitwise Left Shift operation on the binary values of two input rasters.
BitwiseNot Performs a Bitwise Complement operation on the binary value of an input raster.
BitwiseOr Performs a Bitwise Or operation on the binary values of two input rasters.
BitwiseRightShift Performs a Bitwise Right Shift operation on the binary values of two input rasters.
BitwiseXOr Performs a Bitwise Exclusive Or operation on the binary values of two input rasters.
BlockStatistics Calculates statistics for a non-overlapping neighborhood.
BooleanAnd Performs a Boolean And operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
BooleanNot Performs a Boolean complement (NOT) operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
BooleanOr Performs a Boolean Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
BooleanXOr Performs a Boolean Exclusive Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
BoundaryClean Smoothes the boundary between zones by expanding and shrinking it.
CellStatistics Calculates a per-cell statistic from multiple rasters.
ClassProbability Creates probability layers for each class in a signature file.
CombinatorialAnd Performs a Combinatorial And operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
CombinatorialOr Performs a Combinatorial Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
CombinatorialXOr Performs a Combinatorial Exclusive Or operation on the cell values of two input rasters.
Combine Combines multiple rasters so a unique output value is assigned to each unique combination of input values.
ConTool Performs a conditional if/else evaluation on each of the input cells of an input raster.
Contour Creates contours or isolines from a raster surface.
ContourList Creates contours or isolines based on a list of contour values.
ContourWithBarriers Creates contours from a raster surface.
Corridor Calculates the sum of accumulative costs for two input accumulative cost rasters.
Cos Calculates the cosine of cells in a raster.
CosH Calculates the hyperbolic cosine of cells in a raster.
CostAllocation Calculates for each cell its nearest source based on the least accumulative cost over a cost surface.
CostBackLink Defines the neighbor that is the next cell on the least accumulative cost path to the nearest source.
CostDistance Calculates the least accumulative cost distance for each cell to the nearest source over a cost surface.
CostPath Calculates the least-cost path from a source to a destination.
CreateConstantRaster Creates a raster of a constant value within the Analysis window.
CreateNormalRaster Creates a raster of random values with a normal distribution on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
CreateRandomRaster Creates a raster of random floating point values between 0 and 1 on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
CreateSignatures Creates an ASCII signature file of classes defined by input sample data and a set of raster bands.
Curvature Calculates the curvature of a raster surface, optionally including profile and plan curvature.
CutFill Calculates the volume and area of cut and fill locations.
DarcyFlow Calculates the groundwater volume balance residual and other outputs for steady flow in an aquifer.
DarcyVelocity Calculates the groundwater seepage velocity vector (direction and magnitude) for steady flow in an aquifer.
Dendrogram Constructs a tree diagram showing attribute distances between sequentially merged classes in a signature file.
Diff Determines which values from the first input are logically different from the values of the second input on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
Divide Divides the values of two rasters on a cell-by-cell basis.
EditSignatures Edits and updates a signature file by merging, renumbering, and deleting class signatures.
EqualTo Performs a relational equal-to operation on two inputs on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
EqualToFrequency Evaluates the number of times a set of rasters is equal to another raster on a cell-by-cell basis.
EucAllocation Calculates, for each cell, the nearest source based on Euclidean distance.
EucDirection Calculates, for each cell, the direction, in degrees, to the nearest source.
EucDistance Calculates, for each cell, the Euclidean distance to the closest source.
Exp Calculates the base e exponential of cells in a raster.
Exp10 Calculates the base 10 exponential of cells in a raster.
Exp2 Calculates the base 2 exponential of cells in a raster.
Expand Expands specified zones of a raster by a specified number of cells.
ExtractByAttributes Extracts the cells of a raster based on a logical query.
ExtractByCircle Extracts the cells of a raster based on a circle.
ExtractByMask Extracts the cells of a raster that correspond to the areas defined by a mask.
ExtractByPoints Extracts the cells of a raster based on a set of points.
ExtractByPolygon Extracts the cells of a raster based on a polygon.
ExtractByRectangle Extracts the cells of a raster based on a rectangle.
ExtractValuesToPoints Extracts the cell values of a raster based on a set of points.
Fill Fills sinks in a surface raster to remove small imperfections in the data.
Filter Performs a preset focal filter on a raster.
Float Converts each cell value of a raster into a floating-point representation.
FlowAccumulation Creates a raster of accumulated flow to each cell.
FlowDirection Creates a raster of flow direction from each cell to its steepest downslope neighbor.
FlowLength Calculates distance or weighted distance along a flow path.
FocalFlow Determines the flow of the values in the input raster within each cell's immediate neighborhood.
FocalStatistics Calculates a statistic on a raster over a specified neighborhood.
GreaterThan Returns 1 for cells where the first raster is greater than the second raster and 0 for cells if it is not.
GreaterThanEqual Returns 1 for cells where the first raster is greater than or equal to the second raster and 0 if it is not.
GreaterThanFrequency Evaluates the number of times a set of rasters is greater than another raster on a cell-by-cell basis.
HighestPosition Determines the position of a raster with the maximum value in a set of rasters.
HillShade Computes hillshade values for a raster surface by considering the illumination angle and shadows.
Idw Interpolates a surface from points using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) technique.
InList Determines which values from the first input are contained in the other inputs, on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
Int Converts each cell value of a raster to an integer by truncation.
IsNull Returns 1 if the input value is NoData and 0 for cells that are not, on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
IsoCluster Uses an isodata clustering algorithm to determine the characteristics of the natural groupings of cells in multidimensional attribute space and stores the results in an output ASCII signature file.
KernelDensity Calculates a magnitude per unit area from point or polyline features using a kernel function to fit a smoothly tapered surface to each point or polyline.
Kriging Interpolates a surface from points using kriging.
LessThan Returns 1 for cells where the first raster is less than the second raster and 0 if it is not.
LessThanEqual Returns 1 for cells where the first raster is less than or equal to the second raster and 0 where it is not.
LessThanFrequency Evaluates the number of times a set of rasters is less than another raster on a cell-by-cell basis.
LineDensity Calculates a magnitude per unit area from polyline features that fall within a radius around each cell.
LineStatistics Calculates a statistic on the attributes of lines in a circular neighborhood around each output cell.
Ln Calculates the natural logarithm (base e) of cells in a raster.
Log10 Calculates the base 10 logarithm of cells in a raster.
Log2 Calculates the base 2 logarithm of cells in a raster.
Lookup Creates a new raster by looking up values found in another field in the table of the input raster.
LowestPosition Determines the position of a raster with the minimum value in a set of rasters.
MajorityFilter Replaces cells in a raster based on the majority of their contiguous neighboring cells.
Minus Subtracts the value of the second input raster from the value of the first input raster on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
MLClassify Performs a maximum likelihood classification on a set of raster bands.
Mod Finds the remainder of the first raster when divided by the second raster on a cell-by-cell basis.
MultiOutputMapAlgebra Runs an expression built with the Map Algebra language.
NaturalNeighbor Interpolates a surface from points using a natural neighbor technique.
Negate Changes the sign (multiplies by -1) of the cell values of the input raster on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
Nibble Replaces cells of a raster corresponding to a mask with the values of the nearest neighbors.
NotEqual Returns 1 for cells where the first raster is not equal to the second raster and 0 for cells where it is equal.
ObserverPoints Identifies exactly which observer points are visible from each raster surface location.
Over Returns those values from the first input that are non-zero; otherwise, returns the value from the second input on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
ParticleTrack Calculates the path of a particle through a velocity field, returning an ASCII file of particle tracking data and, optionally, a coverage of track information.
PathAllocation Calculates the nearest source for each cell based on the least accumulative cost over a cost surface, while accounting for surface distance and horizontal and vertical cost factors.
PathBackLink Defines the neighbor that is the next cell on the least accumulative cost path to the nearest source, while accounting for surface distance and horizontal and vertical cost factors.
PathDistance Calculates, for each cell, the least accumulative cost distance to the nearest source, while accounting for surface distance and horizontal and vertical cost factors.
Pick Assigns output values using one of a list of rasters determined by the value of an input raster.
Plus Adds the values of two rasters on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
PointDensity Calculates a magnitude per unit area from point features that fall within a neighborhood around each cell.
PointsSolarRadiation Derives incoming solar radiation for specific locations in a point feature class or location table.
PointStatistics Calculates a statistic on points over a specified neighborhood outputting a raster.
Popularity Determines the value in an argument list that is at a certain level of popularity on a cell-by-cell basis within the Analysis window.
PorousPuff Calculates the time-dependent, two-dimensional concentration distribution in mass per volume of a solute introduced instantaneously and at a discrete point into a vertically mixed aquifer.
Power Raises the cells in a raster to the power of the values found in another raster.
PrincipalComponents Performs principal components analysis on a set of raster bands.
Rank Returns the value of a set of rasters based on a rank level specified by another raster.
ReclassByASCIIFile Reclassifies or changes the values of the input cells of a raster using an ASCII remap file.
ReclassByTable Reclassifies or changes the values of the input cells of a raster using a remap table.
Reclassify Reclassifies (or changes) the values in a raster.
RegionGroup For each cell in the output, Regiongroup records the identity of the connected region to which that cell belongs.
RoundDown Returns the next lower whole number for each cell in a raster.
RoundUp Returns the next higher whole number for each cell in a raster.
Sample Creates a table that shows the values of cells from a raster, or set of rasters, for defined locations.
SetNull Returns NoData if a conditional evaluation is true and returns the value specified by another raster if it is false, on a cell-by-cell basis.
Shrink Shrinks the selected zones by a specified number of cells.
Sin Calculates the sine of cells in a raster.
SingleOutputMapAlgebra Runs a single expression built with the Map Algebra language.
SinH Calculates the hyperbolic sine of cells in a raster.
Sink Creates a raster identifying all sinks or areas of internal drainage.
Slice Slices a range of values of the input cells of a raster by zones of equal interval, equal area, or by natural breaks.
Slope Identifies the rate of maximum change in z-value from each cell.
SnapPourPoint Snaps pour points to the cell of highest flow accumulation within a specified distance.
SolarRadiationGraphics Derives raster representations of a hemispherical viewshed, sunmap, and skymap, which are used in the calculation of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation.
Spline Interpolates a surface from points using a minimum curvature spline technique.
SplineWithBarriers Interpolates a surface, using barriers, from points using a minimum curvature spline technique.
Square Calculates the square of cells in a raster.
SquareRoot Calculates the square root of cells in a raster.
StreamLink Assigns unique values to sections of a raster linear network between intersections.
StreamOrder Assigns a numeric order to segments of a raster representing branches of a linear network.
StreamToFeature Converts a raster representing a linear network to features representing the linear network.
TabulateArea Calculates cross-tabulated areas between two datasets.
Tan Calculates the tangent of cells in a raster.
TanH Calculates the hyperbolic tangent of cells in a raster.
Test A logical expression used to perform a Boolean evaluation of the input raster.
Thin Thins rasterized linear features by reducing the number of cells representing the width of the features.
Times Multiplies the values of two rasters on a cell-by-cell basis.
TopoToRaster Interpolates a hydrologically correct surface from point, line, and polygon data.
TopoToRasterByFile Interpolates a hydrologically correct surface from point, line, and polygon data using parameters specified in a file.
Trend Interpolates a surface from points using a trend technique.
Viewshed Determines the raster surface locations visible to a set of observer features.
Watershed Determines the contributing area above a set of cells in a raster.
WeightedOverlay Overlays several rasters using a common measurement scale and weights each according to its importance.
WeightedSum Overlays several rasters multiplying each by their given weight and summing them together.
ZonalFill Fills zones using the minimum cell value from a weight raster along the zone boundary.
ZonalGeometry Calculates for each zone in a dataset the specified geometry measure (area, perimeter, thickness, or the characteristics of ellipse).
ZonalGeometryAsTable Calculates for each zone in a dataset the geometry measuresfor example, area, perimeter, thickness, and the characteristics of ellipseand reports the results as a table.
ZonalStatistics Calculates statistics on values of a raster within the zones of another dataset.
ZonalStatisticsAsTable Summarizes the values of a raster within the zones of another dataset and reports the results to a table.
 

Package com.esri.arcgis.geoprocessing.tools.spatialanalysttools Description

ArcGIS Spatial Analyst provides a rich set of tools to perform cell-based (raster) analysis. Of the three main types of GIS data (raster, vector, and TIN), the raster data structure provides the most comprehensive modeling environment for spatial analysis.

Cell-based systems divide the world into discrete uniform units called cells, based on a grid structure. Each cell represents a certain specified portion of the earth, such as a square kilometer, hectare, or square meter. Cells are given values that correspond to the features or characteristics that are located at or describe the locations they represent, such as an elevation value, soil type, or residential classification. In a cell-based system, geographic location is not defined as an attribute but is inherent in the storage structure, known as the locational perspective.

The locational perspective allows ArcGIS Spatial Analyst to store continuous data—for example, elevation, oil concentration, and sound—more effectively. In continuous data, each location has a quantity, magnitude, or intensity assigned to it, and the values are relative to one another. The locational perspective also allows for greater diversity in spatial analysis for both discrete—for example, land use and vegetation type—and continuous data, which will become apparent in the wide variety of discussions accompanying each toolset.

The following table lists the available toolsets in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and gives a brief description of each.

Name Description
Conditional Toolset The conditional tools allow for control of the output values based on conditions placed on the input values. The conditions that can be applied are either attribute queries or are based on the position of the conditional statement in a list. A simple attribute query might be, if a cell value is greater than five, multiply it by ten; otherwise, assign a value of one to the location.
Density Toolset By calculating density, you spread point values over a surface. The magnitude at each sample location (line or point) is distributed throughout a landscape, and a density value is calculated for each cell in the output raster. For example, density analysis will take population counts assigned to town centers and distribute the people throughout the landscape more realistically.
Distance Toolset There are two main ways to perform distance analysis in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst: Euclidean distance and cost distance. The Euclidean distance functions measure straight-line distance from each cell to the closest source (the source identifies the objects of interest, such as wells, roads, or a school). The cost distance functions (or cost weighted distance) modify Euclidean distance by equating distance as a cost factor, which is the cost to travel through any given cell. For example, it may be shorter to climb over the mountain to the destination, but it is faster to walk around it.
Extraction Toolset The extraction tools allow you to extract a subset of cells by either the cells' attributes or their spatial location. Extracting cells by attribute is accomplished through a where clause. For example, your analysis may require an extraction of cells higher than 100 meters in elevation from an elevation raster. You can also extract by a specified shape. For example, you can extract all cells that fall inside, or outside, a specified circle, rectangle, or polygon.
Generalization Toolset Sometimes a raster dataset contains data that is erroneous or irrelevant to the analysis at hand or is more detailed than you need. For instance, if a raster dataset was derived from the classification of a satellite image, it may contain many small and isolated areas that are misclassified. The generalization functions assist with identifying such areas and automate the assignment of more reliable values to the cells that make up the areas.
Groundwater Toolset The groundwater tools can be used to perform rudimentary advection–dispersion modeling of constituents in groundwater.
Hydrology Toolset Hydrology functions simulate the flow of water over an elevation surface and create either a stream network or a watershed.
Interpolation Toolset Surface interpolation functions create a continuous (or prediction) surface from sampled point values. The continuous surface representation of a raster dataset represents height, concentration, or magnitude—for example, elevation, pollution, or noise. Surface interpolation functions make predictions from sample measurements for all locations in a raster dataset whether or not a measurement has been taken at the location.
Local Toolset In a local function, the value at each location on the output raster is a function of the input values at the location. When computing a local function, you can combine the input rasters, calculate a statistic, or evaluate a criteria for each cell in an output raster based on the values of each cell from multiple input rasters. For example, you can find the mean precipitation for a ten-year period or find how many years the precipitation exceeded 0.5 meters.
Map Algebra Toolset Map Algebra is the analysis language for ArcGIS Spatial Analyst. It is a simple syntax similar to algebraic syntax. For example, to create a slope map from an elevation surface, use the following command: outslope–slope(elevation). Most ArcGIS Spatial Analyst functions can be accessed through Map Algebra.
Math Toolset ArcGIS Spatial Analyst provides a full suite of mathematical operators and functions. These operators and functions allow for the arithmetic combining of the values in multiple rasters, the mathematical manipulation of the values in a single input raster, the evaluation of multiple input rasters, or the evaluation and manipulation of values in the binary format.
Multivariate Toolset Multivariate statistical analysis allows for the exploration of relationships between many different types of attributes. There are two main types of multivariate analysis available in ArcGIS Spatial Analyst: (1) supervised and unsupervised classification, and (2) principal component analysis (PCA). A third multivariate analysis, regression, is available in ArcGrid Workstation. Accompanying these analyses are a series of tools to evaluate each step in the analysis process. These tools can be used, for example, to predict the biomass (the dependent variable) at each location given the quantities of precipitation, soil type, aspect, and temperature (the independent variables).
Neighborhood Toolset Neighborhood functions create output values for each cell location based on the value for the location and the values identified in a specified neighborhood. The neighborhood can be of two types: moving or search radius. Moving neighborhoods can be either overlapping or nonoverlapping. Overlapping neighborhood functions, also referred to as focal functions, generally calculate a specified statistic within the neighborhood. For example, you may want to find the mean or maximum value in a 3x3 neighborhood. The nonoverlapping neighborhood functions, or block functions, allow for statistics to be calculated in a specified nonoverlapping neighborhood. Search radius functions perform various calculations based on what is within a specified distance from point and linear features.
Overlay Toolset A common spatial analysis query is to identify the suitability of each cell location relative to specific criteria. The criteria can be relative costs, preferences, or risks. Suitability models answer questions such as, Where is the best location to construct a house? What is the cheapest route to build a road? and Which areas should be conserved for deer habitat? The Weighted Overlay tool allows you to easily reclassify your data, weight the datasets, and combine them to create a suitability map.
Raster Creation Toolset The raster creation functions create new rasters in which the output values are based on a constant or a statistical distribution. The Create Constant Raster tool creates an output raster of constant values within a specified map extent and cell size. The Create Normal Raster tool assigns values to an output raster so the values produce a normal distribution. The Create Random Raster (or Map Algebra Rand) tool randomly assigns values to cells on an output raster.
Reclass Toolset Reclassifying your data simply means replacing input cell values with new output cell values. There are many reasons why you might want to reclassify your data. Some of the most common reasons are: (1) to replace values based on new information, (2) to group certain values together, (3) to reclassify values to a common scale (for example, for use in a suitability analysis or for creating a cost raster for use in the Cost Distance tool), and (4) to set specific values to NoData or to set NoData cells to a value. There are several approaches to reclassify your data: by individual values, by ranges, by intervals or area, or through an alternative value.
Solar Radiation Toolset Using the solar radiation analysis tools, you can calculate incoming solar insolation (global, direct, and diffuse radiation) across a geographic area or for specific point locations. Using an input surface DEM, you can determine the amount of radiant energy that is received from the sun across a landscape for a given period of time.
Surface Toolset With the surface analysis tools, you can gain information by producing a new dataset that identifies a specific pattern within an original dataset. Patterns that were not readily apparent in the original surface can be derived, such as contours, angle of slope, steepest downslope direction (aspect), shaded relief (hillshade), and viewshed.
Zonal Toolset Zonal functions take a value raster as input and calculate a function or statistic using the value for each cell and all cells belonging to the same zone. The zonal functions are grouped by how the zones are specified: by a single input value raster or by a second zone raster. You can use the zonal tools to locate the number of endangered species (the value raster) within each parcel (the zone raster) or to find the area or perimeter of each zone in a raster.